School pupils, university students and teachers have staged demonstrations across Italy against a school reform law just passed by parliament.
In Rome’s Piazza Navona, a popular tourist spot, several people were lightly injured in a clash between left- and right-wing students.
The reform package is expected to cut the education budget.
In primary schools there will be just one all-purpose teacher per class and a grade system for pupils’ behaviour.
The package will reinstate a 10-point system for grading pupils’ conduct, aimed at curbing bullying.